There are three basic types of foundations - deep basement, crawl space, and slab-on-grade.
There are several construction systems from which to choose for each foundation type. The most common systems are cast-in-place concrete and concrete blockfoundation walls. Other systems include pressure-preservative-treated wood foundations, precast concrete foundation walls, masonry or concrete piers, cast-in-place concrete sandwich panels, piles, and masonry systems.
A slab-on-grade construction with an integral concrete grade beam at the slab edge is common in climates with a shallow frost depth. In colder climates, deeper cast-in-place concrete walls and concrete block walls are more common, although a shallower footing can sometimes be used depending on soil type, groundwater conditions, and insulation placement.
Most of the foundation types and construction systems described above can be designed to meet necessary structural, thermal, radon, termite and moisture or water control requirements. Factors affecting the choice of foundation type and construction system include site conditions, overall building design, the climate, local market preferences, and construction costs.